What Is Interplanetary File System (IPFS)?

In this post ”What Is Interplanetary File System (IPFS)?”, we will look at what HTTPS is, how IPFS works, why use IPFS, IPFS interplanetary file system, and a lot more.

The InterPlatery File System is a distributed peer-to-peer framework for saving and retrieving information, webpages, and programs that use content addressing instead of proximity.

The InterPlanetary File System

Among the earliest totally decentralized and distributed file storage and sharing systems was the InterPlanetery File System (IPFS). Although web content is generally saved on hosts with a defined location, IPFS stores and distributes data via a blockchain-like mechanism.

If you want to visit a Wikipedia site, for instance, you would normally type in the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) address in an internet browser and be forwarded to a page hosted on one of Wikipedia’s servers. If you try to view the equivalent web page through an IPFS Gateway, nevertheless, you will get a perfectly identical result; moreover, it will have been dispersed to you by the closest machine that has previously viewed the page over IPFS.

In general, IPFS works in the same way as a blockchain-based network of nodes, where all data is exchanged and dispersed by the nearest possible source. IPFS enables people to retrieve content dispersed throughout the network from the closest accessible peer as a peer-to-peer (P2P) distributed storage network. This improves both the timeliness of retrieval and the safety of the data stored on the network dramatically.

IPFS uses a content addressing technique to identify the content sought by the user, which is one of its key features. Unlike conventional web access, which relies on a specific address, or in other terms, a particular location, IPFS uses content addressing to recollect key data. Content addressing functions similarly to how a library does. When you go to the library to look for a book, you normally ask for it by its title, which is essentially a content item.

On the contrary, if you mentioned you were searching for a book in row 3 of aisle 7 on the second level, you were using location-based searching. In other terms, instead of searching for the particular spot where the information is held, IPFS uses relevant content keywords to retrieve the information you need.

Due to its versatility and safety, IPFS is quickly gaining the industry standard in blockchain projects. IPFS has become a powerful instrument for non-fungible token (NFT) platforms to keep data about the content they release, thanks to the growth of NFTs.

Using the Interplanetary File System (IPFS)

The Interplanetary File System (IPFS) is a peer-to-peer file-sharing network that is poised to form the foundation for a new, decentralized web. This is how it works and how you may get started:

A Distributed Internet

Despite its international presence, the internet remains a centralized network. Servers—physical or virtual—in vast server farms or cloud platforms are the primary data storage devices underpinning the internet. A single business owns all of these installations. Other firms own or rent the servers, which have been set up and opened to the public.

Why HTTPS Is A Concern

Anybody who wishes to view the content on such servers must use HTTPS to access the right server from their browser. The server is at the heart of the system, handling all demands for data access.

Obviously, this is a simplified representation, but it adequately describes the overall idea. Corporations may use mirror servers and content providers to enable growth and ensure reliability. Even yet, there are only a tiny and limited number of places where users may access such data.

IPFS is a decentralized network architecture. Git, the version control software, is one of the most prominent decentralized systems. As every programmer who has cloned a source has a duplicate of the complete repository, along with the history, on their laptop, Git is a distributed system. Any replica of the central repository may be used to recreate it if it is cleaned out. IPFS extends the distributed notion of file storage and access to files.

Juan Benet invented IPFS, which is managed by Protocol Labs, the firm he established. They combined Git’s decentralized nature with torrents’ distributed, bandwidth-saving capabilities to build a file system that operates all across the IPFS channel’s nodes. And it’s functioning right now.

The IPFS In Action

The IPFS decentralized network is made up of nodes, which are computers that are linked to it. Content may be kept in nodes and made available to anybody who wants it.

Whenever anyone asks for a file or a website, their node caches a copy of the file. As more users seek that data, there will be more cached copies available.

Any node—or collection of nodes—that has the content on it may execute successive queries for it. The responsibility for transmitting data and performing requests is increasingly distributed across several nodes.

This necessitates the creation of a new sort of web address. Rather than using address-based routing, which requires you to identify where the data is stored and offer a precise URL for it.

Withdrawing from a centralized paradigm eliminates a target of entry for attackers. The concept that their information, photographs, and other material will be saved on other folks’ devices will be the greatest apparent worry for most individuals.

However, that isn’t the case at all. You don’t link to IPFS and publish to it. It’s not a shared, distributed Dropbox. It’s something you can become involved with by installing a node or paying to utilize a cloud service’s expertly provisioned node. And until you want to share or publish anything, no one else will have access to it. The phrase “uploading” is really deceptive. In reality, you’re integrating resources into your personal node.

How Encryption Works

One must encode a document before importing it if you want it to be available to everyone but the content is confined to a few people. Data is encrypted on both sides during transfer, however, imported files are not protected by default. This gives you the freedom to choose your encryption method. IPFS does not promote any one method of file management encryption as the “official” method.

Data Storage

Data is kept in 256-KB pieces known as IPFS objects. Big items are divided into multiple IPFS objects as necessary to contain them. Each IPFS object in a file has connections to all the other IPFS objects in that file.

Whenever an item is uploaded to the IPFS network, it is assigned a 24-character hash ID known as the content ID or CID. Within the IPFS network, it is recognized and addressed in this way. When the content gets recovered, the hash is recalculated to ensure the file’s integrity.

The content has been edited if the verification screws up. IPFS manages file versioning when files are lawfully modified. This indicates that the updated copy of the file gets saved alongside the old one. IPFS works as a distributed file system, and the principle of updating ensures that the file system remains immutable.

Assume you have a file stored in IPFS on your node, and Dave queries it and transfers it to his node. The next user who requests that file may get it from you, Dave, or in a torrent-like fashion, with portions of the file arriving from both your and Dave’s nodes. The greater the number of users that receive the file, the more nodes are available to assist with future file queries.

Junk management will delete cached IPFS items on a regular basis. However, you may pin a file to your node to keep it there indefinitely. This implies it will not be emptied during waste pickup. There are solutions particularly geared to hosting IPFS accessible webpages, and you may pay for hosting on cloud servers that publish your content to the IPFS network and maintain it indefinitely posted.

If the content on your domain makes headlines and generates large surges of traffic, all of the nodes that fetch those webpages will cache the webpages. Those cached webpages will be utilized to serve more page queries, allowing you to ride out the storm and meet demand.

Naturally, all of this is contingent on an adequate quantity of nodes being up and accessible, as well as adequate pinned and cached data. And that necessitates participation.

Benefits Of IPFS

• Files posted to IPFS are permanent.

This implies that after a file has been posted to IPFS, it cannot be modified without updating its CID. This characteristic guarantees that an object saved on IPFS is invariably the exact, unaltered copy. So you can be confident that the file you download from IPFS is a genuine copy.

• IPFS files are irrevocable.

There is no assurance that a file can be removed after it has been copied by another node.

• IPFS eliminates the possibility of a system breakdown.

IPFS is immune to centralized glitches such as hosting faults or coordinated assaults since contents are dispersed, saved and cached by various nodes.

Due to the obvious aforementioned reasons, NFTs are mostly housed on IPFS. NFT stands for non-fungible token.

ipfsapi module installation

The ipfsapi module allows Python programmers to procedurally add and retrieve files from IPFS.

The pip command may be used to install the ipfsapi module:

install ipfs-api!pip

Linking to an IPFS Public Gateway

Once a file is saved on IPFS, you may access it using the following methods:

  • An IPFS client installed on your local machine, or
  • Using an open IPFS gateway

For the sake of straightforwardness, this post will concentrate on the second approach: utilizing a public IPFS gateway to access files in IPFS. This solution is simple since it eliminates the need to operate your own IPFS daemon and gateway.

You may use the one to connect to a public IPFS gateway.

Error! The URL reference is invalid.

connect to a public IPFS gateway using import ipfsApi#

host=’Error!’ api = ipfsApi.Client(host=’Error!’ (port=5001) Hyperlink reference is invalid.

The lines above construct a TCP client for communicating with an IPFS daemon.

Visitors may access material on the IPFS network without having to host their personal IPFS node using public IPFS Gateways. They enable web visitors to request material from the IPFS network. The gateway transmits the specified file once that content has been located.

Uploading a file to IPFS

The initial step will be to upload a file to IPFS. Assume I have the below document titled 1920px-Van Gogh -.jpg.

_Starry Night – Google Art Project.jpg:

Use the add() function with the filename you wish to add to IPFS:


‘1920px-Van Gogh – Starry Night – Google Art Project.jpg’)


The add() function returns a dictionary as a result:

‘Name’: ‘1920px-Van Gogh – Starry Night – Google Art Project.jpg’, ‘Name’: ‘1920px-Van Gogh -_

‘Hash’: ‘QmY5vj71MdAPr452bxed3P6P3VKechpodf12kEk1YTY7FY’, ‘QmY5vj71MdAPr452bxed3P6

‘Size’: ‘1364078’}

The image’s content identifier, or CID, is QmY5vj71MdAPr452bxed3P6P3VKechpodf12kEk1YTY7FY.

The document in IPFS may then be accessed via the HTTP protocol using the following format: https://ipfs.io/ipfs/CID>.

Obtaining An IPFS File

Use the get() function with the CID of the file you wish to obtain to obtain a document from IPFS algorithmically:

Retrieve the image’s hash from the result variable earlier

result[‘Hash’]# = CID get a picture from ipfs


The get() function finds a file with the supplied content hash and stores it locally utilizing the CID as the filename in the current working directory.

Protocols HTTP, HTTPS, And IPFS

Although we can discuss the differences between HTTP, HTTPS, and IPFS, we must first define the term “protocol.” A protocol is primarily a collection of principles that we utilize for interaction.

Let’s pretend you’re on holiday in France and you don’t know french. If you don’t bring a phrasebook to your favorite pub, you can commit a social faux pas. The protocol mandates that you communicate in French.

However, there are various protocols used for interaction on the internet, not only language. HTTP and HTTPS are the most widely used Internet protocols.

About HTTP

Tim Berners-Lee designed HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) in 1989, and it was accepted by most internet browsers in 1996.

It’s become the prefix for urls like http://example.com, which uses the HTTP protocol by configuration.

If you type www.example.com instead of http://www.example.com, your browser will append the prefix for you.


HTTPS (Hypertext transfer protocol secure) is a secured version of HTTP that is used to transport confidential material between a browser and a website.

The HTTPS protocol secures the transmission of credit card information and login credentials over the Internet.

One may note that websites lacking HTTPS are presented differently in Chrome. Check your address bar for a green padlock, which indicates whether or not a website is safe.

What Exactly Is IPFS And How Does It Function?

Juan Benet’s IPFS (InterPlanetary File System) is a peer-to-peer (P2P) distributed file system that aims to challenge the HTTP-based web.

When you visit a standard website, a centralized server sends a text, images, and videos to your device through HTTP or HTTPS.

IPFS, on the other hand, is open-source and employs numerous nodes to provide the same information more quickly. It also conserves bandwidth, enabling you to distribute large amounts of data with little duplication.

IPFS functions in a similar way to BitTorrent (the world’s largest distributed network), which is also peer-to-peer.

IPFS Aspires To Reimagine The Internet

Because the Internet now pervades every aspect of our life, including work, pleasure, and communication. Why modify it now, others would ask? What exactly is the issue?

Below are a few explanations why IPFS might benefit web users:
  • Improves browser performance — IPFS provides quicker speeds since data is accessed via surrounding nodes rather than a centralized site at a distant location.
  • Reduces costs — Because IPFS is based on a decentralized network, you’ll save costs by not having to pay for costly server hosting.
  • Maintains the quality of older web pages — Have you ever asked what happens to your websites once you pass away? If your website is dependent on centralized social networks, it may succumb to ‘link rot’ and vanish forever, taking your collections with it. Your website will no more be at the risk of a single server, but it will rather run over a decentralized network using a distributed IPFS system.

• Shields your privacy — Because IPFS isn’t reliant on central servers like HTTP, it makes it harder for authorities to prohibit websites like Wikipedia.


This post has covered what IPFS is, how it works, and why it’s valuable. It also demonstrated several code examples for adding and retrieving files from IPFS in particular. You may upload whole directories to IPFS in addition to individual files.

Finally, here is a list of more related topics you might find interesting:

  1. Blockchain Technology
  2. Defi
  3. NFTs
  4. DAOs
  5. Crypto
  6. Web 3.0
  7. Altcoin Tokenomics
  8. Metaverse
  9. Smart Contracts

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